A review on novel COVID-19: background, etiology, pathogenesis, transmission, prevention and management


  • Kalyani. R Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Venkateswara college of Pharmacy, Etcherla, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh
  • Padmasri B. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, Etcherla, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7054-4749
  • Anilkumar V. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, GIET School of Pharmacy, Rajahmundry, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh
  • Prasanth. D. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, Etcherla, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7054-4749




COVID-19, Pandemic, RT-PCR, FET, prevention


Mankind's history is watching a bizarre time battling an imperceptible adversary, the novel COVID-19 Coronavirus. At first seen in the Wuhan province of China, presently limitlessly spreading all over world. How the COVID 19 has been made on the globe become Pandemic needs no depiction. The virus has been accounted for affecting the lungs and related respiratory tracts promoting harm of the alveoli. It has been accounted that the respiratory sickness is the prevailing Clinical symptom of COVID-19. This review article discusses an easily understanding of the causes, different type of Human viruses regarded of Coronavirus, clinical diagnosis of RT-PCR, FET, Primary prevention and control of the virus. Therefore, this review article main theme is to provide more reliable and valid information to control and manage public emergency in both acute and chronic conditions of coronavirus


Download data is not yet available.


Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, Wang W, Song H, Huang B, Zhu N, Bi Y, Ma X, Zhan F, Wang L, Hu T, Zhou H, Hu Z, Zhou W, Zhao L, Chen J, Meng Y, Wang J, Lin Y, Yuan J, Xie Z, Ma J, Liu WJ, Wang D, Xu W, Holmes EC, Gao GF, Wu G, Chen W, Shi W, Tan W. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet, 395, 565–74 (2020).

WHO Corona Virus situation report. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200305-sitrep-45-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=ed2ba78b_4 cited 5 March 2020

Riou J, Althaus CL. Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(4), pii=2000058 (2020).

Liu Y, Gayle AA, Wilder-Smith A, Rocklöv J. The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus. Journal of Travel Medicine, 27, 1–4 (2020).

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, Zhao X, Huang B, Shi W, Lu R, Niu P, Zhan F, Ma X, Wang D, Xu W, Wu G, Gao GF, Tan W. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N. Engl. J. Med., 382, 727–33 (2020).

Peiris JSM, Guan Y, Yuen KY. Severe acute respiratory syndrome. Nat Med, 10, S88–97 (2004).

Chen Y, Liu Q, Guo D. Emerging coronaviruses: Genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol, 92, 418–23 (2020).

Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol. Biol. 1282, 1-23. (2015).

WHO Corona Virus situation report https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200130-sitrep-10-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=d0b2e480_2 cited 30 January 2020

Loeffelholz MJ, Tang YW. Laboratory diagnosis of emerging human coronavirus infections - the state of the art. Emerg Microbes Infect 9, 747-56. (2020).

Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res 24, 91-8. (2020).

Ducatezand MF, Guérin J-L. Coronaviruses: Methods and Protocols. Springer, New York, (2015).

How long does the coronavirus last on surface, https://www.bbc.co.uk/digihub/health 51975551, cited 22 March 2020

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, Qiu Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Wei Y, Xia J, Yu T, Zhang X, Zhang L. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 395, 507-13. (2020)

Li H, Liu SM, Yu XH, Tang SL, Tang CK. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 55, 105951. (2020).

Carlos WG, Dela Cruz CS, Cao B, Pasnick S, Jamil S. Novel Wuhan (2019-nCoV) Coronavirus. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 201, P7-P8. (2020).

Zhang H, Kang Z, Gong H, Xu D, Wang J, Li Z, Li Z, Cui X, Xiao J, Zhan J, Meng T, Zhou W, Liu J, Xu H. Digestive system is a potential route of COVID-19: an analysis of single-cell coexpression pattern of key proteins in viral entry process. Gut, 69, 1010–8 (2020).

Li H, Liu SM, Yu XH, Tang SL, Tang CK. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 55, 105951. (2020).

Ahmad S, Hafeez A, Siddqui SA, Ahmad M, Mishra S. A Review of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) Diagnosis, Treatments and Prevention. Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology 4(2), 116–125 (2020)

Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatr 87, 281-286. (2020).

How is the COVID-19 Virus Detected using Real Time RT-PCR?, https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/how-is-the-covid-19-virus-detected-using-real-time-rt-pcr cited 27 March 2020

Khan ZS, Khan MA, Thore PS, Ingle SP. COVID-19: An overview. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 9(5), 1810-1827 (2020)

Seo G, Lee G, Kim MJ, Baek SH, Choi M, Ku KB, Lee CS, Jun S, Park D, Kim HG, Kim SJ, Lee JO, Kim BT, Park EC, Kim SI. Rapid Detection of COVID-19 Causative Virus (SARS-CoV-2) in Human Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimens Using Field-Effect Transistor-Based Biosensor. ACS Nano 14, 5135-42. (2020)

Yangco B. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections. American Journal of Infection Control, 17, 42–3 (1989).

Malakar M. Coronavirus-A Review Article. Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 4(5), 10-12 (2020)

Kampf G. Potential role of inanimate surfaces for the spread of coronaviruses and their inactivation with disinfectant agents. Infection Prevention in Practice, 2(2), 100044 (2020).

Hassan SA, Sheikh FN, Jamal S, Ezeh JK, Akhtar A. Coronavirus (COVID-19): A Review of Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Cureus 12, e7355 (2020).

Jain VM, Karibasappa GN, Dodamani AS, Prashanth VK, Mali GV. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 13, 424-31. (2016).

http://himalayawellness.in cited 31 July 2020

Pradhan D, Biswasroy P, Kumar Naik P, Ghosh G, Rath G. A Review of Current Interventions for COVID-19 Prevention. Archives of Medical Research, 51, 363–74 (2020).

Srinivasan S. Powdered gloves: Time to bid adieu. J Postgrad Med 64, 67-8. (2018).

Zhang J, Xie B, Hashimoto K. Current status of potential therapeutic candidates for the COVID-19 crisis. Brain Behav. Immun. 87, 59-73. (2020).

Tu YF, Chien CS, Yarmishyn AA, Lin YY, Luo YH, Lin YT, Lai WY, Yang DM, Chou SJ, Yang YP, Wang ML, Chiou SH. A Review of SARS-CoV-2 and the Ongoing Clinical Trials. Int J Mol Sci 21, E2657. (2020).

Li L, Li R, Wu Z, Yang X, Zhao M, Liu J, Chen D. Therapeutic strategies for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Ann Intensive Care 10, 45. (2020).

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, Ren R, Leung KSM, Lau EHY, Wong JY, Xing X, Xiang N, Wu Y, Li C, Chen Q, Li D, Liu T, Zhao J, Liu M, Tu W, Chen C, Jin L, Yang R, Wang Q, Zhou S, Wang R, Liu H, Luo Y, Liu Y, Shao G, Li H, Tao Z, Yang Y, Deng Z, Liu B, Ma Z, Zhang Y, Shi G, Lam TTY, Wu JT, Gao GF, Cowling BJ, Yang B, Leung GM, Feng Z. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N. Engl. J. Med. 382, 1199-207. (2020).

Ali I, Alharbi OML. COVID-19: Disease, management, treatment, and social impact. Sci. Total Environ. 728, 138861. (2020).

Marano G, Vaglio S, Pupella S, Facco G, Catalano L, Liumbruno GM, Grazzini G. Convalescent plasma: new evidence for an old therapeutic tool. Blood Transfus 14, 152-7. (2016).

Chen L, Xiong J, Bao L, Shi Y. Convalescent plasma as a potential therapy for COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis 20, 398-400. (2020).

First COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial approved in India https://www.europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com/news/122584/first-covid-19-vaccine-clinical-trial-approved-in-india/ cited 4 July 2020

Dayal D, Gupta S. Connecting BCG Vaccination and COVID-19: Additional Data. medRxiv; 2020.

BNT162 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine, https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/bnt162-sars-cov-2-vaccine cited 1 August 2020

Tian J-H, Patel N, Haupt R, Zhou H, Weston S, Hammond H, Lague J, Portnoff AD, Norton J, Guebre-Xabier M, Zhou B, Jacobson K, Maciejewski S, Khatoon R, Wisniewska M, Moffitt W, Kluepfel-Stahl S, Ekechukwu B, Papin J, Boddapati S, Wong CJ, Piedra PA, Frieman MB, Massare MJ, Fries L, Lövgren Bengtsson K, Stertman L, Ellingsworth L, Glenn G, Smith G. SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein vaccine candidate NVX-CoV2373 elicits immunogenicity in baboons and protection in mice. BioRxiv; 2020

NVX-CoV2373 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine, https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/nvx-cov2373-sars-cov-2-vaccine cited 1 August 2020

Inactivated PiCoVacc vaccine found safe, efficacious in animal study, https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/inactivated-picovacc-vaccine-found-safe-efficacious-in-animal-study/article31544870.ece cited 29th May 2020



How to Cite

R, K. ., Padmasri B., Anilkumar V., & Prasanth. D. (2020). A review on novel COVID-19: background, etiology, pathogenesis, transmission, prevention and management. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research, 8(3), 10-20. https://doi.org/10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.3.10.20