Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research <p><em><strong>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR),</strong> <strong>ISSN No. 2348-0335</strong></em> is an official publication of Creative Pharma Assent (CPA). It is an open access, peer reviewed online Journal. JOAPR primarily focuses on publication of manuscript related to multiple disciplines of pharmaceutical sciences (Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Technology, Biopharmaceutics, Cosmetic Technology, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry and Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Herbal drugs/ formulations, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy). JOAPR is published quarterly. JOAPR also includes evaluation of pharmaceutical excipients &amp; their practical application to research &amp; industry based efforts. The aim of the scientific journal, JOAPR is to present a wide area for the current researchers to share their noble works and ideas in terms of the research papers, review articles and short communications. JOAPR only publishes original research works with a definite innovation and novelty after thorough plagiarism checking and peer reviewing. The paper must have a suitable and proper scientific background.</p> <p><strong>Brief Information about JOAPR</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>Journal Title: </strong>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research</li> <li><strong>Journal Abbreviation: </strong>J. Appl. Pharm. Res.</li> <li><strong>Publisher: </strong>Creative Pharma Assent</li> <li><strong>Country: </strong>India</li> <li><strong>Language: </strong>English</li> <li><strong>Publishing Frequency: </strong>Quarterly</li> <li><strong>Editor In Chief:</strong> Prof. Amit Roy</li> <li><strong>Editorial Office: </strong>Plot No. 105/42, Opposite electricity sub station, Changorabhata, Raipur (CG) 492001, India</li> <li><strong>Regional Office:</strong> Bishnupath, Rukminigoan, Dispur, Guwahati, Assam, PIN-781022</li> <li><strong>Phone: </strong>+91-8349444385 ; +91-9770019143</li> <li><strong>E-mail: </strong> ;</li> <li><strong>Website: </strong></li> <li><strong>Publication: </strong>Online only</li> <li><strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2348-0335</li> <li><strong>CODEN: </strong>JAPRIV</li> <li><strong>Year of Start: </strong>2013</li> <li><strong>Review Process</strong><strong>: </strong>Double-blind peer review</li> </ul> Creative Pharma Assent en-US Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research 2348-0335 <p>In submitting an article to Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR) I certify that:</p> <ol> <li>I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.</li> <li>I warrant, on behalf of myself and my co-authors, that: <ul> <li>the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;</li> <li>I am/we are the sole author(s) of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to JOAPR are not in breach of any other obligation;</li> <li>the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libellous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy;</li> <li>I/we have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To my/our - and currently accepted scientific - knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.</li> </ul> </li> <li>I, and all co-authors, agree that the article, if editorially accepted for publication, shall be licensed under the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a></li> <li>I, and all co-authors, agree that, if the article is editorially accepted for publication in Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR) data included in the article shall be made available under the <a href="">Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver</a>, unless otherwise stated. For the avoidance of doubt it is stated that sections 1, 2, and 3 of this license agreement shall apply and prevail.</li> </ol> Investigating the presence of Pesticides in fruits and vegetables by the chromatographic method: A review <p>The intensive development of agriculture means more and more toxic and inorganic compounds are entering the environment. Because of their widespread use, stability, selective toxicity, and bioaccumulation, pesticides are among the most toxic substances contaminating the environment. They are particularly dangerous in fruits and vegetables, by which people are exposed to them. It is therefore crucial to monitor pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using various analytical methods. This article reviews various stages in the determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Here the target analyte has been isolated and then enriched before final determination which may be carried out either by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) method or Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) method. This review explores the analysis of multiple pesticide residues in spinach samples and walks through the step-by-step process of developing the analytical method, from sample preparation to analysis, best suited to the data requirements</p> Shweta Borkar Jessica Gonsalves Copyright (c) 2020 Shweta Borkar, Jessica Gonsalves 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 8 4 01 09 10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.4.1.9 A review on global threat corona virus disease: COVID-19 <p>Corona virus disease is a kind of viral disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- CoV 2, which is first witnessed in Wuhan city, China and it can be transmit from human to human. Coronavirus size ranges from (65-125 nm) in diameter and contain a single stranded RNA as nucleic acid material, size ranging from 26 to 32 kbps in length. The sub group of coronaviruses family is Alpha (α) Beta (β) Gama (γ) and delta (δ) coronavirus. Coronavirus disease is a kind of respiratory disease which mainly affects the lower respiratory tract of human body. Initially interferon α normalisation, broad spectrum antibiotic and antiviral drugs was used to reduce the viral load. There may be different kind of mode of transmission of this virus for example Respiratory transmission, Aerosol transmission, Contact transmission and Hospital acquired transmission. There is a well explained safety measures is provided to inhibit the COVID-19 spread which should be followed properly. There are some testing processes also developed to determine the presence of this virus. Till now not even a single vaccine is developed for the treatment of this COVID-19 but more than 12 countries across the globe are undergoing trial for more than 150 vaccine candidates.</p> Samia begam Barbhuiya Vicky Bareh Caroline Malsawmtluangi Parikshit Das Copyright (c) 2020 Samia begam Barbhuiya, Vicky Bareh, Caroline Malsawmtluangi, Parikshit Das 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 8 4 10 15 10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.4.10.15 Quality of life in total knee replacement (TKR) patients – A review <p>Worldwide, severe pain and disability are caused to patients by Osteoarthritis, which is a common condition of the joints. A need for knee replacement had become a great option for patients when conventional treatment fails in granting appropriate relief in them, especially in elderly patients. Like all joint replacement surgeries, a total knee replacement procedure is also a quite painful and risky procedure that requires sufficient postoperative rehabilitation and therapies to prevent further complications. Post-surgical pain had a great influence on the patients' quality of life and a need to measure pain intensity had become a basic requirement. Measuring pain intensity can be done using traditional pain scales like a visual analogue scale (VAS), and a numerical rating scale (NRS). A risk assessment and predictor tool (RAPT) determines the discharge accuracy in patients. The WOMAC scale which is the abbreviated form of the questionnaire for checking the health status of the patients known as the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index. This questionnaire is used to assess the quality of life of the osteoarthritis patients after a surgery for the total knee replacement. The results of the assessment show that pain had become a significant factor in the reduction in quality of life. In conclusion, a well-designed multimodal analgesic regimen should be incorporated into the patient's rehabilitation care, which in turn will intensify the patient's quality of life, lessen the hospital stay, and minimize the socio-economic burden</p> M. Ranga Priya M. Karthika Meril Lucy Shibu B. Kowsalya Lini Jacob Copyright (c) 2020 M.RANGA PRIYA 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 8 4 16 23 10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.4.16.23 Analytical method development and validation for simultaneous estimation of mefloquine hydrochloride and artemether in bulk drug by simultaneous equation method <p>The purpose of the research is to establish a fast, accurate, precise, and low-cost UV-Visible spectrophotometry method for the quantitative simultaneous estimation of mefloquine hydrochloride and artemether in bulk drug. The UV-Visible method employed was a simultaneous equation method. Ethanol was used as a solvent and therefore the absorption maxima (λ max) was found to be 229 nm and 209 nm for mefloquine hydrochloride and artemether. The linearity ranges of both drugs were 1-6 μg/mL and 100 – 350 μg/mL with a regression coefficient r<sup>2 </sup>≥ 0.998 respectively. The method was validated for different parameters according to International Conference on Harmonization ICH Q2B guidelines. The average recovery for mefloquine hydrochloride was found to be 100 per cent and artemether 99.3 per cent. The method was also found precise and robust with a per cent relative standard deviation of less than 2. All the parameters result obtained within the limits. Therefore, the proposed method for the accurate quantitation of mefloquine hydrochloride and artemether in the bulk drug was successfully implemented.</p> Amit Choudhary Manish Sinha Amar Deep Ankalgi Kamya Goyal Arti Devi Copyright (c) 2020 Mr. Amit Choudhary, Dr. Manish Sinha, Mrs. Kamya Goyal, Mrs. Arti Devi 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 8 4 24 32 10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.4.24.32 A novel RP – HPLC methodology for method development and validation of aceclofenac and tizanidine pharmaceutical dosage forms <p>A simple and selective LC technique is chosen for the determination of Aceclofenac and Tizanidine in pill indefinite quantity forms. Chromatographic process separation was achieved on a c18 column victimization mobile part consisting of a combination of fifty volumes of Triethylamine buffer, fifty volumes of acetonitrile with detection of 230nm. Dimensionality was discovered within the vary 5-15 µg/ml for aceclofenac (r2 =0.999) and 1-3 µg /ml for tizanidine (r2 =0.998) for the number of medicine calculable by the planned strategies was in smart agreement with the label claim. The planned strategies have a sound procedure. At three completely different levels the accuracy of the strategies was assessed by recovery studies. The recovery experiments indicated the absence of interference from unremarkably encountered pharmaceutical additives showing %RSD below a pair of this technique was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis. All applied mathematics information proves all ways have valid procedure and might be used for routine analysis of pharmaceutical dose kind</p> Adilakshmi Nenavath Nellore Dharani Sai Sreekanth Copyright (c) 2020 Adilakshmi Nenavath, Nellore Dharani Sai Sreekanth 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 8 4 33 44 10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.4.33.44 In vitro anti-oxidation activity studies of the whole plant (except flower) of Thunbergia coccinea <p>An <em>in vitro</em> study of the methanolic extract of the whole plant (except flower) of <em>Thunbergia coccinea</em> was performed to check the anti-oxidant activity by different methods (Reducing power assay, TBA and DPPH scavenging assay) and before starting the study, the plant was extracted by Soxhlet apparatus using methanol as solvent and the marc was evaporated kept under desiccator. From the literature survey it was found that the plant contain flavonoids and tannins which are non-enzymatic antioxidants responsible for scavenging free radicals as reported and based on this, the study for antioxidant was carried out. The methanolic extract of the plant <em>Thunbergia coccinea</em> shows promising result in antioxidant studies when in comparison with the standard (Ascorbic acid). Thus further studies like <em>in vivo</em> evaluation can be performed in the mere future.</p> Damanbhalang Rynjah Sumit Das Copyright (c) 2020 Damanbhalang Rynjah, Dr. Sumit Das 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 8 4 45 49 10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.4.45.49 Syntheses and characterization of 5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3h)thione derivatives <p>1,3,4-oxadiazoles represent a class of heterocyclic five membered compounds it contain two nitrogen and one oxygen of great importance in Pharmaceutical chemistry. This nucleus show four isomeric forms 1,2,4-oxadiazole,1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,5-oxadiazole, and 1,2,3-oxadiazole. This nucleus has various biological activity such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, antitumor, antidepressant, anticancer, analgesic etc. have been reported. A series of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles<strong>-</strong>2(3<em>H</em>)thione derivative has been synthesized in four steps and the derivative were characterized by FTIR spectral analysis. This article explain the different biological activities associated with 1,3,4-oxadiazole five membered ring are useful for researchers across the world working on this nucleus.</p> Shailesh Pathak Sharad Sharma Vinay Pathak Mahesh Prasad Copyright (c) 2020 Shailesh Pathak, Sharad Sharma, Vinay Pathak, Mahesh Prasad 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 8 4 50 61 10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.4.50.61 Formulation by design approach for effervescent granules of vitamin C using statistical optimization methodologies <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), is a potent antioxidant, and the human body cannot synthesis it, so ascorbic acid can be obtained from external sources as food and pharmaceutical products. <strong>Objective:</strong> This study was using formulation by design (FbD) concept to prepare effervescent granules of vitamin C with high quality and more patient compliance in less effort and cost. <strong>Methods:</strong> A 2<sup>3 </sup>factorial design was used to study the physical and chemical characteristics of the granules (disintegration time (DT), taste of product (TP), carbon dioxide amount (CO<sub>2</sub>), and pH of the solution). Also the effects of and interaction between selected independent variables (citric acid, tartaric acid, and sodium bicarbonate) evaluated, while, their concentrations were optimized by application of optimization model methodology for factorial design. Formulations were prepared by non-aqueous wet granulation method. <strong>Results</strong>: From the results of designed batches, the disintegration time ranged from 33±2.7 to 153±3.3sec while the amount of carbon dioxide ranged from 0.360±0.004gm to 1,512±0.002gm also the pH range was from 2.9±0.09 to 6.42±0.07 but the taste of product was coded numerically in proportional with acceptability from 1 to 5. According to the experimental design, both of studied independent variables have significant effect in determining the physicochemical characteristics of effervescent granules. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> FbD concept effectively was utilized for the development of vitamin C effervescent granules as per modern quality practices used in pharmaceutical industries.</p> Abdu Alemad Maher Al-Absi Safwan Alagbarri Mofeed Al- Nowihi Copyright (c) 2020 Abdu Alemad, Maher Al-Absi, Safwan Alagbarri, Mofeed Al- Nowihi 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 8 4 62 69 10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.4.62.69 Method development and validation for multi-component analysis of lamivudine & tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in bulk drug by UV-visible spectrophotometer & RP-HPLC <p>A novel, simple, precise and accurate method developed for the estimation of Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in bulk drug form has been established. Lamivudine and tenofovir are well known drugs and used in treatment of HIV- Ⅰ. The method was performed by using C18 column, ODS Hypersil column with UV detection at 262nm by using Acetonitrile and water in ratio 55:45. The retention time was found to be 2.8 and 6.8 min for Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The linearity was found in range of 6- 14µg/ml for Lamivudine and 10- 50µg/ml for Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with flow rate 1ml/min. the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness as per ICH guidelines. This method is suitable for simultaneous analysis for both the nucleoside analog reverse- transcriptase inhibitors</p> Shweta Sharma Amar Deep Ankalgi Pooja Kaushal M. S. Ashawat Copyright (c) 2020 Shweta Sharma, Amar Deep Ankalgi, Pooja Kaushal, M. S. Ashawat 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 8 4 70 76 10.18231/j.joapr.2020.v.8.i.4.70.76