Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research <p><em><strong>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR),</strong> <strong>ISSN No. 2348-0335</strong></em> is an official publication of Creative Pharma Assent (CPA). It is an open access, peer reviewed online Journal. JOAPR primarily focuses on publication of manuscript related to multiple disciplines of pharmaceutical sciences (Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Technology, Biopharmaceutics, Cosmetic Technology, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry and Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Herbal drugs/ formulations, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy) and Clinical studies in all areas of human disease and medicine. JOAPR is published quarterly. JOAPR also includes evaluation of pharmaceutical excipients &amp; their practical application to research &amp; industry based efforts. The aim of the scientific journal, JOAPR is to present a wide area for the current researchers to share their noble works and ideas in terms of the research papers, review articles and short communications. JOAPR only publishes original research works with a definite innovation and novelty after thorough plagiarism checking and peer reviewing. The paper must have a suitable and proper scientific background.</p> <p><strong>Brief Information about JOAPR</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>Journal Title: </strong>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research</li> <li><strong>Journal Abbreviation: </strong>J. Appl. Pharm. Res.</li> <li><strong>Publisher: </strong>Creative Pharma Assent</li> <li><strong>Country: </strong>India</li> <li><strong>Language: </strong>English</li> <li><strong>Publishing Frequency: </strong>Quarterly</li> <li><strong>Editor In Chief:</strong> Prof. Amit Roy</li> <li><strong>Editorial Office: </strong>Plot No. 105/42, Opposite electricity sub station, Changorabhata, Raipur (CG) 492001, India</li> <li><strong>Regional Office:</strong> Bishnupath, Rukminigoan, Dispur, Guwahati, Assam, PIN-781022</li> <li><strong>Phone: </strong>+91-8349444385 ; +91-9770019143</li> <li><strong>E-mail: </strong> ;</li> <li><strong>Website: </strong></li> <li><strong>Publication: </strong>Online only</li> <li><strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2348-0335</li> <li><strong>CODEN: </strong>JAPRIV</li> <li><strong>Year of Start: </strong>2013</li> <li><strong>Review Process</strong><strong>: </strong>Double-blind peer review</li> <li><strong>Indexing: <br />Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by number of agencies/ organization/ databases like Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), Index Copernicus, Crossref, OLCC WorldCat, Garuda, Dimensions, Chemical Abstract Services (CAS), OpenAIRE, Google Scholar, J-Gate, Scilit, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Indonesia one search, Indian Citation Index, CNKI, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE), PKP-Index, Neliti</strong></li> </ul> en-US (Dr. Sanjib Bahadur) (Dr. Ananta Choudhury) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Implementation and comparison of different taste masking techniques to design and assess dispersible tablet formulations <p>The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of several taste-masking techniques and to study the impact of different formulation variables on the physicochemical properties of dispersible tablets containing Ranitidine as a model drug. Ranitidine powder was taste masked using various techniques. Factorial design (2<sup>4</sup>) was applied to design the set of tablet formulations. The four factors implemented were the manufacturing method, filler type, superdisintegrant type and superdisintegrant concentration. Levels selected were direct compression and wet granulation for the manufacturing method, microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol for the diluent type, sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium for superdisintegrant type, and 2% and 10% for superdisintegrant concentration. Granulation with calcium carbonate (ratio of 1:8) was the taste-masking method of choice to be implemented. The formulated tablets results revealed that the manufacturing method has a significant influence on all the tested physicochemical properties (p-values &lt; 0.05) such as tablet’s weight variation, hardness, friability, and disintegration time. Croscarmellose sodium obtained better results than sodium starch glycolate. Both fillers obtained good properties when implementing direct compression method with croscarmellose sodium concentration of 2%, or wet granulation method with croscarmellose sodium concentration of 10%. Drug release was also increased by increasing concentration of croscarmellose sodium. These findings represent an easy manufacturing procedure with relatively low-cost materials that can be implemented to formulate dispersible tablets of bitter tasting drugs that will enhance patient compliance and lead to faster onset of action.</p> Alaa E. Elawni, Zuheir Osman, Mohammed Salih, Waleed Elballa, Mohammed Shayoub Copyright (c) 2022 Alaa E. Elawni, Zuheir Osman, Mohammed Salih, Waleed Elballa, Mohammed Shayoub Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Clinical comparison of analgesic efficacy of addition of injection dexamethasone 8mg to 20ml 0.5% levobupivacaine in ultrasonography assisted supraclavicular brachial plexus block <p><strong>Background:</strong> Ultrasonography-assisted supraclavicular block is an efficacious and practical method and allows us to use a lower volume of local anesthetic in compactly arranged brachial plexus. The study envisioned evaluating the analgesic and anesthetic effects of Inj. dexamethasone (8mg) as an adjuvant to 0.5% levobupivacaine to determine the time for first rescue analgesia and number of rescue analgesics needed in 24 hours duration in brachial plexus blockade in adult patients listed for upper limb surgeries. <strong>Results: </strong>This prospective randomized double-blind interventional study was carried out in ASAI and II, aged 20 to 55 years. In group A (n=30) Inj. Levobupivacaine 20ml and Inj. Normal saline 2ml was given. In group B (n=30) Inj. Levobupivacaine 20ml and Inj. Dexamethasone 2ml was given. The time for the demand of the first rescue analgesia was 431.50 ± 46.15 minutes in group A and 749.38 ± 62.41 minutes in group B, with a p-value &lt; 0.001. The demand for rescue analgesics was more in Group A in contrast to Group B. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> We deduce with our study, with the addition of dexamethasone, the time for rescue analgesia is prolonged, and the number of rescue analgesic demands is reduced, with a faster onset and extended duration of both sensory and motor block.</p> Chetali Das, Rajni Mathur, Srishti Kukreja Copyright (c) 2022 Chetali Das, Rajni Mathur, Srishti Kukreja Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Swine flu (H1N1) pandemic strain-09 PDM: A recent outbreak in northern India <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To Identify molecular characterization of swine flu (H1N1) pdm 09 and seasonal flu (influenza A). <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> NP/OP Swab specimen of 142 patients were collected aseptically in VTM. Nucleic Acid was extracted manually and was processed in Real-Time PCR for identification of swine flu (H1N1) 09 pdm and seasonal flu (inf A). <strong>Results:</strong> In this study, 142 patients presented with signs and symptoms of Flu like illness patients and were tested by Real-time PCR. Out of total 32 (22.53%) positive specimens, 18(56.25%) were positive swine flu(H1N1) 09 pdm and 14(43.73%) were positive seasonal flu (inf A). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> We report a tiny outbreak of 18 swine flu (H1N1) 09 pdm and 14 seasonal flu cases in our hospital, from Jan 2022 to June 2022. The outbreak involved persons of all age groups, but it mostly affected paediatric age group.</p> Vinita Choudhary, Chetan Choudhary, Ayushi Sharma, Vinod Kumar Sharma, Pushpendra Saraswat Copyright (c) 2022 Vinita Choudhary, Chetan Choudhary, Ayushi Sharma, Vinod Kumar Sharma, Pushpendra Saraswat Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Comparison of intravenous lignocaine versus combination of lignocaine with diltiazem on attenuation of haemodynamic responses to tracheal extubation in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries under general anaesthesia: A randomized double blind interventi <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tracheal intubation is frequently associated with cardiovascular stress response characterized by hypertension, tachycardia and increased serum concentration of catecholamines and similar phenomenon is also seen during extubation. During Endotracheal extubation increase in sympathoadrenergic activity is caused by epipharyngeal and laryngopharyngeal stimulation. <strong>Objective:</strong> The aim and objectives of this study are to compare the effect of combination of intravenous (i.v.) diltiazem 0.1 mg/kg and i.v lignocaine 1.0 mg/kg vs intravenous lignocaine alone to attenuate haemodynamic extubation responses and airway reflexes during extubation. <strong>Material and method</strong>: This study was undertaken with 72 patients belonging to the age group 20–60 years with physical status ASA Classes I and II of either sex. Group A received injection diltiazem 0.1 mg/kg and lignocaine 1 mg/kg. Group B received injection lignocaine 1 mg/kg with normal saline. In this study, the drug dosage was fixed based on the previous studies. <strong>Result</strong>: The baseline values of heart rate,systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were statistically comparable between the two groups. The heart rate, SBP, DBP, and MAP was significantly high in group A (lignocaine) as compared to group B (diltiazem with lignocaine) at extubation and&nbsp; till 1 min, 3 min, 5 min,&nbsp; and 10 min post extubation (pvalue&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Combined diltiazem and lignocaine provides more effective prophylaxis than lignocaine alone for attenuating the cardiovascular responses to tracheal extubation</p> Kanchan Chauhan, Vivek Gupta, Sunil Chauhan, Manoj Soni Copyright (c) 2022 Kanchan Chauhan, Vivek Gupta, Sunil Chauhan, Manoj Soni Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Comparative evaluation of subclavian vein catheterization by supraclavicular and infraclavicular approach <p>The present study was conducted in Department of Anaesthesia, Sardar Patel Medical College and PBM Hospital, Bikaner, with the aim of comparative evaluation of subclavian vein catheterization by supraclavicular and infraclavicular approach. There are three common routes of central venous catheterization i.e. subclavian, internal jugular and the femoral. Hence in our study we have done a comparative evaluation of supraclavicular and infraclavicular approach for SCV catheterization with primary objective of successful catheterization of SCV using anatomical landmark technique and secondary objective of first attempt success rate, time taken for cannulation and also record the incidence of complications related to either approach. In our study, 60 patients enrolled were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each. In Group A Infraclavicular SCV catheterization and in Group B Supraclavicular catheterisation was performed using anatomical landmark approach. Successful catheterization, first attempt success rate, time taken for venous access and catheterization, catheter malfunction or any other complication were recorded. In group A (IC) Maximum 63.33% were inserted in single attempt whereas minimum 10% required 3 or more attempts while in group B (IC) maximum 93.33% were inserted in single attempt whereas minimum 3.33% needed 3 or more attempts, and the difference was found statistically significant. Overall successful catheterization was 90% in Group A and 96% in Group B while 93 % when combined for both groups. Mean time taken for insertion was observed more (6.67 ± 1.44 min.) in group A whereas less (4.47 ± 1.01min.) in group B, and the difference was found statistically highly significant. We conclude that SC approach of SCV catheterization is better as comparable to IC approach in terms of landmarks accessibility, success rate, time taken and rate of complications.</p> Kiwi Mantan, Sandeep Kothari, Shiva Tanwar, Satyaprakash, Jinesh Baid, Gaurav Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Kiwi Mantan, Sandeep Kothari, Shiva Tanwar, Satyaprakash, Jinesh Baid, Gaurav Joshi Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Medicinal plants use as an anti-inflammatory agent: a brief review on molecular pharmacological approach <p>Inflammation is a vital therapeutic target for creating new methods for pharmacological interventions, aside from being a stage in the pathophysiology of many diseases, such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, molecular understanding of inflammation has led to new opportunities for drug creation and significant new implications for current clinical medicine. It has also revealed the biological targets and mechanisms of therapeutic action, opening up new opportunities to alter complex biological systems. Meanwhile, using medicinal plants to control inflammation has been recommended as an alternative to traditional therapeutic approaches for a variety of conditions, particularly when suppression of inflammation is anticipated. Several medicinal plant species have been demonstrated to have strong anti-inflammatory properties in contemporary research. The review article was discussed about the chemical constituents and biological properties of therapeutically active plants including curcumin from <em>Curcuma longa</em> and epigallocatechin-3-gallate from <em>Camellia sinensis</em>, including the molecular pharmacology of active constituents against inflammation.</p> Kishor Kumar Roy, Dibyendu Shil, Rasamalla Mounika, Md Masud Reja, Subhasish Saha, Ranjan Kumar Maji Copyright (c) 2022 Kishor Kumar Roy, Dibyendu Shil, Rasamalla Mounika, Md Masud Reja, Subhasish Saha, Ranjan Kumar Maji Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0530