Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Mr. Aarush Basnet Open Journal Systems <p><em><strong>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR),</strong> <strong>ISSN No. 2348-0335</strong></em> is an official publication of Creative Pharma Assent (CPA). It is an open access, peer reviewed online Journal. JOAPR primarily focuses on publication of manuscript related to multiple disciplines of pharmaceutical sciences (Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Technology, Biopharmaceutics, Cosmetic Technology, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry and Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Herbal drugs/ formulations, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy) and Clinical studies in all areas of human disease and medicine. JOAPR is published bimonthly from August 2023 (earlier quarterly). JOAPR also includes evaluation of pharmaceutical excipients &amp; their practical application to research &amp; industry based efforts. The aim of the scientific journal, JOAPR is to present a wide area for the current researchers to share their noble works and ideas in terms of the research papers, review articles and short communications. JOAPR only publishes original research works with a definite innovation and novelty after thorough plagiarism checking and peer reviewing. The paper must have a suitable and proper scientific background.</p> <p><strong>Brief Information about JOAPR</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>Journal Title: </strong>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research</li> <li><strong>Journal Abbreviation: </strong>J. Appl. Pharm. Res.</li> <li><strong>Publisher: </strong>Creative Pharma Assent</li> <li><strong>Country: </strong>India</li> <li><strong>Language: </strong>English</li> <li><strong>Publishing Frequency: </strong>Bimonthly (From August 2023)</li> <li><strong>Editor In Chief:</strong> Prof. Amit Roy</li> <li><strong>Editorial Office: </strong>Plot No. 105/42, Opposite electricity sub station, Changorabhata, Raipur (CG) 492001, India</li> <li><strong>Regional Office:</strong> Bishnupath, Rukminigoan, Dispur, Guwahati, Assam, PIN-781022</li> <li><strong>Phone: </strong>+91-8349444385 ; +91-9770019143</li> <li><strong>E-mail: </strong> ;</li> <li><strong>Website: </strong></li> <li><strong>Publication: </strong>Online only</li> <li><strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2348-0335</li> <li><strong>CODEN: </strong>JAPRIV</li> <li><strong>Year of Start: </strong>2013</li> <li><strong>Review Process</strong><strong>: </strong>Double-blind peer review</li> <li><strong>Indexing: <br />Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by number of agencies/ organization/ databases like <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), Index Copernicus, Crossref, OLCC WorldCat, Garuda, Dimensions, Chemical Abstract Services (CAS), OpenAIRE, Google Scholar, J-Gate, Scilit, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Indonesia one search, Indian Citation Index, CNKI, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE), PKP-Index, Neliti</strong></li> </ul> Innovative approach for improved sustained delivery of metformin hydrochloride for its anti-hyperglycemic activity 2023-12-11T14:08:22+0530 M Kar Pillai S Pillai S Jain <p>Metformin hydrochloride, an antidiabetic agent, is useful in reducing the blood glucose concentration in Type II diabetes. It is also finding its use as a repurposed drug. The formulations consisted of micro drug delivery systems prepared by emulsification method and were evaluated <em>in-vitro</em> and <em>in-vivo</em>. Process variables like amount of polymer, speed of agitation and stirring, presence or absence of surfactant and cross linker offered a versatile approach towards obtaining the formulation though affected physicochemical properties of formulations. Discrete, spherical, and free-flowing microspheres, in the size range and granularity of 250 to 700µ were used to control the drug release rate. Drug release was diffusion controlled as evident from the Higuchi kinetics. The physical characteristics of the formulations were reproducible. Healthy and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic male albino mice were used for <em>in-vivo</em> experimentation by evaluating plasma glucose level reduction and % reduction in the blood glucose level after administration of pure drug and formulations. The results indicate significant sustained fall in the blood glucose level for about 10 hrs following formulation administration as compared to the pure drug.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 M Kar Pillai, S Pillai, S Jain Knowledge, attitudes and practices of Materiovigilance among physicians in a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in Puducherry- a cross sectional study 2024-01-13T07:12:57+0530 Sakthibalan M Mangaiarkkarasi Adhimoolam Indumathi C <p><strong>Background: </strong>In India, medical devices are considered as drugs. A medical device may lead to problems either due to a defect during manufacture or transport, improper handling by health care professionals or patients, or failure to comply with recommendations. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective: </strong>To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Materiovigilance among health professionals at the Tertiary Care Hospital. <strong>Methods: </strong>This was a Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Based study. The questionnaires were circulated among 100 medical professionals. The structured survey tool comprised of two parts. The first part contains demographic data, and the second part consists of 15 questions, with 5 each pertaining to the awareness, attitude, and practice domains. All the data were entered into a Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using GraphPad Instat software version 5.0. <strong>Results: </strong>Medical professionals with above-average knowledge scores were 57 %, and the practice percentage of Materiovigilance was 60%, but there is a positive attitude (72%) towards Materiovigilance. A significant difference was noted Between the knowledge scores of professors and residents (p-value - 0.0491). There was no significant difference in knowledge scores between medical, surgical, and pre/para specialties. However, there was a positive correlation between the knowledge and attitude scores of the medical professionals. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> We conclude that the Knowledge aspect and also the practice of Materiovigilance among Physicians in our tertiary care hospital is lacking. However, their positive attitude to reporting adverse events is reassuring.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Sakthibalan M, Mangaiarkkarasi Adhimoolam, Indumathi C Effectiveness and usage of written and verbal counselling information on anxiety in MRI at a tertiary care hospital in Chennai 2023-09-27T12:47:57+0530 Harish Kannapan Subhashini Abhishri Lakshmi <p><strong>Background: </strong>Many people have considerable anxiety when having magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fear during an MRI causes the process to drag on longer and the quality of the images to decline, which increases expenses and requires labor loss. <strong>Objective: </strong>This study sought to determine how vocal and written information affected patients' anxiety during MRI procedures. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A prospective cross-sectional study with 300 participants was conducted. The investigation occurred in March and April of 2022 at the tertiary care hospital's radiology department. Three participant groups were formed: group 1 received textual material, group 2 served as the control group, and so on; and group 3 learned about counseling. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), a measure of anxiety levels, was used to determine the people's traits and state of anxiety. <strong>Results: </strong>The three groups' trait anxiety scores did not significantly differ (p = 0.20) from each other's demographic features. Statistically speaking, group 3's state anxiety levels were lower than those of group 2 and the control group. Group 2's state anxiety levels were statistically lower (p&lt;0.001) than those of the control group. <strong>Conclusion:</strong>Verbal and written information can help to lessen MRI anxiety. Written information may not be as good at lowering MRI anxiety as verbal information.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Harish Kannapan, Subhashini, Abhishri Lakshmi Prevalence and awareness of text neck syndrome and text thumb syndrome in young adult population 2023-12-26T14:20:43+0530 Senthil Kumar B Kouser Banu Khaleeluddin Saikarthick Jayakumar Ezhil Vendhan K <p><strong>Background: </strong>The term "text neck" can be defined as repetitive strain injury and pain due to excessive viewing and texting on a smartphone for a prolonged duration. Long-term untreated text neck results in inflammation of ligaments and muscles, which can lead to permanent arthritic changes. Many smart phone users experience thumb/wrist pain, but some people who develop pain are smart phone addicts. The present study checks the prevalence and awareness of text neck and thumb text syndrome in young adults. <strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted with 200 volunteers between 18-25 years age who have been using mobile phone in the last 5 years. A structured questionnaire was created, validated, and used for the study. Descriptive statistics was used to assess responses received from participants. The prevalence of text neck syndrome and thumb text syndrome has been established. <strong>Results: </strong>About 50.3% of the participants were unaware of text neck syndrome and 57.1% of text thumb syndrome. Maximum mobile phone usage included texting and calls. About 45.2% of the participants use their right thumb and index finger to text. 33% of people have a head forward posture when using mobile phones. An analysis of pain, discomfort, and duration during mobile phone use was done and will be presented at a forum. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The prevalence of text neck and thumb text syndrome in the young adult population indicates the need to plan future pain management strategies and increase user awareness</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Senthil Kumar B, Kouser Banu Khaleeluddin, Saikarthick Jayakumar, Ezhil Vendhan K A cross-sectional study to assess the barriers to teleconsultations among doctors in Chennai 2023-12-14T13:53:54+0530 Supraja Nagarathinam R. Umadevi Angeline Grace G Raghul Saravanan <p><strong>Background: </strong>A doctor's communication and interpersonal skills encompass gathering information to facilitate accurate diagnosis, counsel appropriately, give therapeutic instructions, and establish caring relationships with patients. While face-to-face consultations have been the norm, tele-consultations and enrolment in telemedicine apps have become necessary. Tele-consultations have been on the rise significantly during the COVID-19 lockdown. This study aims to assess the barriers to tele-consultations among doctors in Chennai. <strong>Methodology: </strong>This study uses a cross-sectional design to assess the barriers to tele-consultations among doctors in Chennai using a convenience sampling technique. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS software version 23. <strong>Results: </strong>81.6% of the participants feel that teleconsultations have reduced face-to-face consultations. Only about 6% of the study participants preferred teleconsultation in the future. About a third of the doctors in the study could not treat/manage chronically ill patients through teleconsultations. About 70% of the doctors could follow up with their patients through telecommunication, but 70% failed to follow up. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>From this study, we conclude that only about 6% of the study participants would prefer teleconsultation in the future. Treating medical emergencies and assessment of surgical patients were considered as top 2 important barriers in this study with about half of them facing this barrier during their telecommunication.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Supraja Nagarathinam, R. Umadevi, Angeline Grace G, Raghul Saravanan Retrospective comparative evaluation of airway management with different techniques of fiberoptic intubation in patients undergoing surgery for temporomandibular joint ankylosis 2024-01-14T06:18:04+0530 Varun Kumar Saini Priyanka Saini Priyanka Soni Manish Khandelwal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Temporomandibular fusion has devastating effects on the growth and development of an individual's jaws. Thus, surgical modality is seen as a last resort to its correction. Surgical management of temporomandibular ankylosis cases presents significant challenges to an anesthetist in maintaining airway patency. Thus, this retrospective study evaluated the techniques for combating airway management challenges, emphasizing developing an institutional protocol that effectively minimizes errors. <strong>Methods: </strong>This retrospective study was conducted in the RUHS College of Dental Sciences and attached to the RUHS College of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, for a period of three years. The records of 94 patients who had undergone surgical correction of TMJ ankylosis and were intubated with fiberoptic intubation were compiled. The cases were divided into groups, Group General anesthesia (GA) and Group Regional anesthesia (RA), and analyzed for demographics, successful intubation, and complications. <strong>Results: </strong>In Group GA, 98 % of cases were successfully intubated. Patient movements were 0 in Group GA and 25% in Group RA. Coughing was present in 1.61% of cases of group GA and 98.38% of Group RA. Epistaxis occurred in 35% of cases, and 29% of cases suffered from sore throat after extubation in Group GA. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The anesthetist dilemma of intubating awake or anesthetized always exists. However, a careful preoperative evaluation and assessment of the patient for mask ventilation helps in the successful anesthetic management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis cases. For the anticipated difficult airway awake, fiberoptic intubation is still the ‘gold standard’ technique.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Varun Kumar Saini, Priyanka Saini, Priyanka Soni, Manish Khandelwal Evaluation of toxicity studies of Sesbania grandiflora leaves extracts in Wistar albino rats 2024-02-28T11:12:26+0530 Sharad Sharma Bhupesh Chander Semwal Avijit Mazumder <p><strong>Objective:</strong><em> Sesbania grandiflora</em> is a well-known medicinal plant belonging to the family Fabaceae, and it is used to treat several disorders. The current investigation aims to analyze the negative consequences of short and long-term administration of hydroalcoholic extract of <em>S. grandiflora</em> leaf in experimental animals. <strong> Materials and Methods: </strong>Acute and subacute toxicity were the two phases in which the entire examination was completed. In phase first, acute toxicity was performed at the dose of (2000, mg/kg) and adverse effect was recorded. However, in sub-acute toxicity the effect of different doses of (1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg) were studied for twenty-eight days. Animals were euthanized on the last day of the investigation, and selected internal body organs and samples of the blood were taken from each animal for histological, biochemical, and haematological analysis. <strong>Results: </strong>The result of the current investigation showed that the LD50 of<em> S. grandiflora</em> was observed more than 2000 mg/kg, Furthermore, experimental animals did not experience any mortality or alterations in their behavioral patterns when <em>S. grandiflora</em> was administered repeatedly at 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg or in a single dose of 2000 mg/kg. Besides this, S<em>. grandiflora</em> also did not significantly modify any of the biochemical or haematological markers, or the histological analyses of selected organs. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of the above research revealed that the orally administration of <em>S. grandiflora </em>extract did not exhibit any apparent harmful effects in experimental animals. Hence, <em>S. grandiflora</em> could be regarded as a safe and can be used for the therapeutic purpose in human being.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Sharad Sharma, Bhupesh Chander Semwal, Avijit Mazumder Evaluation of the post-coital anti-fertility activity of Michelia champaca linn. aerial extract in female Wistar rat 2023-12-31T07:28:15+0530 Seema Devi Chander Mohan <p><strong><em>Background</em>: </strong>The plant <em>M. champaca L</em>., commonly known as Champa, has traditionally been utilized for its medicinal properties, particularly in women's health, for managing sterility and birth control. Previous literature primarily focuses on the anti-fertility activity of leaf extracts, while limited research has explored the potential of other aerial parts, such as the bark and flowers. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the female anti-fertility actions of various aerial parts (including leaves, branches, bark, and flowers) of the <em>M. champaca</em> plant, expanding our understanding beyond the previously studied leaf extracts. <strong>Material and Method</strong>: The petroleum ether (PEAEMC), ethyl alcohol (EAEMC), and chloroform water (AAEMC) extracts of aerial parts of <em>M. champaca</em> at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were administered to female Wistar rats by using an experimental model, i.e., anti-implantation and estrogenic/Anti-estrogenic activity. <strong>Result</strong>: All three extracts showed significant anti-implantation activity (p&lt;0.01). Among all, only EAEMC Showed activity corresponding to the standard. EAEME caused an increase in the vaginal opening size and increased height and width of the endometrium in immature ovariectomized female rats; it showed an estrogen-like action when given alone, however when given along with Ethinylestradiol, it showed anti-estrogenic action. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was observed that EAEMC (the Ethyl alcohol extract of <em>M. champaca</em>) showed dose dependent anti-fertility activity. The chemical constituents like steroids, alkaloids, and flavonoids identified from the photochemical screening may be responsible for the anti-fertility activity of the aerial parts of <em>M. champaca L</em>.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Seema Devi, Chander Mohan Clinical investigations to calculate nuchal translucency using F-LNET 2024-02-02T11:45:10+0530 Kalyani Chaudhari Shruti Oza <p><strong>Background</strong>: According to ongoing research, assessing nuchal translucency (NT) in ultrasound pictures can help to identify fetal development that deviates from the norm. The chance of chromosomal abnormalities in a newborn is predicted by the nuchal translucency (NT) width in ultrasound sonography pictures performed on the child between 11 and 14 weeks of gestation. <strong>Method</strong>: Deeply learned convolutional networks have recently significantly improved NT region detection performance. This paper discusses a novel approach to learning a cutting-edge NT Region identification algorithm. To address the difficulty of improving the accuracy of NT recognition in various lighting and posture conditions, a Framework Learning Network (F-LNET) is employed. <strong>Discussion</strong>: The limitations of the current NT estimating technique include findings that are unpredictable and intra-personal, inter-personal, and inter-variation restrictions. On the other hand, existing solutions have a high processing overhead and are, hence, unsuitable for rapid NT limiting and localization, which is critical for reliable recognition. However, current methods could be better for quick NT limiting and localization, which is essential for trustworthy identification schemes because of their significant processing overhead. The suggested automated clinical finding approach, which computes the error between human and automated measurements, is very beneficial to both doctors and society at large. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The suggested way reduces the error to 0.42, whereas the error of other methods ranges from 0.8 to 1.1.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Kalyani Chaudhari, Shruti Oza Comparative study of bone mineral density, phenotypes of emphysema in patients with or without established diagnosis of chronic airway disease 2023-12-27T10:17:36+0530 M Chandra Sekhar Reddy G Laxmi Sushmita <p><strong>Background:</strong> Bone thinning and emphysema are established diseases caused by tobacco-related products proven beyond doubt. A paucity of literature available to establish the association between them. <strong>Objectives: </strong>To explore the association between the different emphysema subtypes and the presence of low bone mineral density among a population of active or former smokers with and without an established diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). <strong>Methods:</strong> 100 active and former smokers with chronic airway disease attending the Pulmonology Outpatient Department were identified, and they were administered clinical questionnaires, pulmonary function tests, chest computed tomography, and DEXA scans. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to analyze the association between the different emphysema subtypes, low bone mineral density, and smoking in the study participants. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 100 samples, 80 % of the patients had low BMD (25 had osteoporosis, and 55 had osteopenia). Emphysema was more frequent and severe in patients with osteoporosis (63.2 vs. 36.8%, p=&lt;0.01). For analyzing significant co-factors, a multivariable analysis was done, which yielded Body Mass Index (Odds ratio of 0.89 with a 95% Confidence Interval of 0.67–1.23) and the presence of centrilobular emphysema as most commonly associated with osteoporosis. (Odds ratio of 35.25, with a 95% confidence interval of 3.23 to 401.63). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Patients having increased Body Mass Index (BMI) and the presence of centrilobular emphysema are having osteoporosis irrespective of their smoking status, which implicates BMI, and centrilobular emphysema has to be considered while evaluating COPD patients.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 M Chandra Sekhar Reddy, G Laxmi Sushmita Enhancement of curcumin's physicochemical properties by developing its eutectic mixtures 2024-01-21T11:13:39+0530 Sunita Ahlawat Vikas Budhwar Manjusha Choudhary <p><strong>Background:</strong> Curcumin is a compound obtained from the rhizomes of <em>Curcuma Longa</em>. It has various pharmacological properties like anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic, etc. However, it also has some limitations that restrict its use as a medicine. <strong>Material and method: </strong>In the present study, a eutectic mixture of curcumin and glycine (35% and 65%) was prepared to improve its dissolution rate and photostability, characterized by DSC, FTIR, and XRD studies. <strong>Result and discussion:</strong> After 40 minutes, the eutectic mixture dissolved 10-fold more than the parent drug. The photostability studies were conducted according to ICH Q1B guidelines; after the seventh day of accelerated photostability studies, curcumin-glycine eutectic mixtures showed 36% degradation, 34% less than pure curcumin. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study revealed that the physicochemical properties of BCS class II drugs can be improved by forming an eutectic mixture.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Sunita Ahlawat, Vikas Budhwar, Manjusha Choudhary Assessment of hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of Vitis vinifera leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in rats 2024-02-03T15:36:43+0530 Ashok Kumar Pragi Amit Sharma Varun Kumar <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Vitis vinifera </em>is known for its antimicrobial activity; however, the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of aerial parts has also been reported, but the nephroprotective and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts have not yet been evaluated. <strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate Vitis vinifera's hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities against CCl<sub>4</sub>-induced toxicity in rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> Two doses of ethanolic extract of <em>Vitis vinifera </em>(100 and 200 mg/kg/day) were evaluated and compared with silymarin 100 mg/kg. Biochemical blood parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), bilirubin, urea, uric acid, total protein and creatinine, and histopathologic changes of liver and kidney were studied and evaluated. <strong>Results: </strong><em>Vitis vinifera </em>reduced the elevated blood levels of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, and creatinine, with the ethanol extract to 200 mg/kg/day being more effective. The histopathologic evaluation suggested that <em>Vitis vinifera </em>decreased hepatic and renal necrosis induced by CCl<sub>4</sub>. The more significant dose resulted in reductions in AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and bilirubin of 54, 27, 56, 36, and 17%, respectively. Ethanolic extract 200 mg/kg/day also shows a reduction in elevated levels of Creatinine, Urea, Uric Acid, and Total Protein by 61%, 58%, 29%, and 9%, respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities of ethanol extract of <em>Vitis vinifera </em>were demonstrated, with ethanol extract to 200 mg/kg/day being the most effective. This presents scientific evidence for using medicinal plants such as <em>Vitis vinifera</em> in managing liver and kidney disorders.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Ashok Kumar, Pragi, Amit Sharma, Varun Kumar Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres of metronidazole 2023-10-28T11:36:01+0530 Dheeraj D. Chechare M. Siddaiah <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Develop and evaluate mucoadhesive microspheres using Chitosan, Sodium alginate, and Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) for sustained oral delivery of Metronidazole, aiming to improve bioavailability. <strong>Methods:</strong> Metronidazole-loaded microspheres were prepared via ionotropic gelation method with varying polymer ratios. Particle size, entrapment efficiency, swelling index, mucoadhesion (sheep mucosae), morphology (SEM), in-vitro wash-off test, drug release profile, and stability (6 months) were evaluated. <strong>Results:</strong> Chitosan content positively correlated with microsphere size. Entrapment efficiency ranged from 51.43% to 94.15%. Chitosan-based formulations, especially MTZ-7 (Chitosan:NaCMC, 3:1), displayed the highest mucoadhesion. SEM analysis revealed rough, spherical microspheres with a continuous polymeric coat. In-vitro wash-off test demonstrated prolonged residence time for Chitosan formulations. Sustained drug release was observed throughout the study, with MTZ-7 exhibiting the most desirable release profile. Stability studies showed no significant changes in drug release for selected formulations after 6 months. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Chitosan-based microspheres, particularly MTZ-7, demonstrated superior mucoadhesive properties, sustained and controlled drug release, and desirable stability. These findings suggest the potential of Chitosan-based microspheres as a promising oral drug delivery system for Metronidazole, potentially addressing bioavailability concerns and improving therapeutic efficacy.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Dheeraj D. Chechare, M. Siddaiah Cinnamomum impressinervium meisn.: antioxidant and antimicrobial activities 2024-02-02T15:09:06+0530 Lovkesh Bhatia Amit Sharma Rishu Kalra Varun Kumar <p><strong>Background: </strong>The <em>Cinnamomum impressinervium (CI) </em>Meisn. Tree, which belongs to the Lauraceae family and is endemic to India, is also called Assameses or Tejiya. Numerous pharmacological properties of this plant, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, have been demonstrated. <strong>Materials and method:</strong> This study examines the phytochemical profile of the leaf using qualitative and quantitative methods. Following the phytochemical analysis of the leaf, the antioxidant efficacy for scavenging free radicals (ABTS and DPPH) was measured. Using the agar well diffusion method, the antibacterial potential of the crude extract and its fractions (aqueous, methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform) was investigated against six gram-negative, three gram-positive, and one fungal strain. <strong>Result and discussion</strong>: Antioxidant activities of various extracts viz: aqueous, hexane, chloroform, and ethanol were prepared and subjected to antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Through qualitative analysis, several alkaloids, steroids, and flavones were identified. In the DPPH and ABTS assays, the aqueous extract had the most potent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 123.83±0.42 and 57.86±0.85 μg/mL, respectively. DNA nicking assay is a qualitative analysis that shows DNA protection from free radicals. All the extracts towards <em>B. atropheous</em> showed best inhibition activity but a maximum zone of inhibition was shown by aqueous extracts measuring 40 mm. Aqueous and methanolic extracts are completely inactive towards <em>S. typhi</em>. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study revealed the antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of various extracts of <em>Cinnamomum impressinervium</em> Meisn. Leaves In this paper, the antibacterial activity of leaf extracts from <em>Cinnamomum impressinervium </em>Meisn. were studied. The evaluated extracts showed varied levels of inhibitory zones against every tested bacterium.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Lovkesh Bhatia, Amit Sharma, Rishu Kalra, Varun Kumar Assessment of psychosocial morbidity among medical interns during COVID-19 pandemic in Chennai district, Tamil Nadu – a cross-sectional study 2023-12-27T22:04:29+0530 B. N. Surya Akshaya Radhakrishnan Vijayalakshmi S A. Hari Narayanan S. Madhush Kumar B. N. Venkatesh Rehana Syed <p><strong>Background: </strong>Medical interns develop apprehensions about the vulnerability of their exposure to infection while treating COVID-19 patients, which may further affect their work patterns and efficiency. Studies have shown that the outbreak of infectious diseases would result in mental health issues. Because of this, our study aims to assess psychosocial factors such as anxiety, depression, stress, relationships with peers, and changes in personal roles among medical interns at a private medical college. <strong>Methodology: </strong>This cross-sectional was conducted among 248 medical interns using a simple random sampling method. Depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed using a standardized 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress questionnaire (DASS– 21). A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to acquire information regarding the study participants' socio-demographic data and social elements. <strong>Results: </strong>The overall prevalence of Depression [58%], Anxiety [70%], and Stress [44%] were found among the 248 study participants. Around [70.6%] of the study participants reported that their social life had been affected. The prevalence of various factors associated with depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study reports higher levels of psychosocial distress among the study participants. Adequate knowledge about the pandemic and stress management measures will be the top priority among these budding medicos during such unfavorable pandemic situations.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 B. N. Surya, Akshaya Radhakrishnan, Vijayalakshmi S, A. Hari Narayanan, S. Madhush Kumar, B. N. Venkatesh, Rehana Syed Preparation of herbal hair oil exploring the therapeutic benefits of herbs and its evaluation 2024-01-19T16:20:32+0530 Dhiraj Baishya Ananta Choudhury Himangshu Deka Nurjamal Hoque Rosamund Jyrwa Jahnabi Sarmah <p><strong>Background:</strong> Herbal cosmetics, particularly herbal hair oils, have gained popularity due to their perceived efficacy and minimal adverse effects. This study aimed to formulate and evaluate herbal hair oils for promoting hair growth. <strong>Methodology:</strong> Various herbal extracts, including Coconut, Curry leaves, Amla, Fenugreek, and Onion, were prepared and incorporated into virgin Coconut oil. Phytochemical screening, total flavonoid content, organoleptic evaluation, chemical analysis (acid value, saponification value, specific gravity), stability studies, antioxidant assay (DPPH), antimicrobial assay, sensitivity studies, and in-vivo hair growth activity were conducted. <strong>Results:</strong> Organoleptic evaluation revealed characteristic odors and colors across formulations. Chemical analysis showed acceptable values for acid value (0.68 - 1.86 mg KOH/g), saponification value (117.87 - 224.27 mg KOH/g), and specific gravity (0.865 - 0.933 g/cm^3). Stability studies over 45 days demonstrated consistent physicochemical properties. The DPPH assay indicated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, with inhibition ranging from 13.8% to 66.5%. Antimicrobial assay showed inhibition zones ranging from 6 mm to 20 mm against Staphylococcus aureus. Sensitivity studies exhibited no adverse reactions. In-vivo hair growth activity demonstrated significant improvements compared to controls. <strong>Discussion:</strong> The formulated herbal hair oils exhibited promising physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial efficacy, safety, and hair growth promotion in animal models. These findings suggest their potential as natural remedies for hair care. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Herbal hair oils formulated in this study show significant potential for promoting hair growth and addressing hair-related concerns. Whereas, formulation F3 shown significant efficacy across multiple parameters among the formulations. Further research and clinical trials are warranted to validate their efficacy and safety for human use.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 Dhiraj Baishya, Ananta Choudhury, Himangshu Deka, Nurjamal Hoque, Rosamund Jyrwa, Jahnabi Sarmah