Calendula officinalis and Echinacae purpurae as antimicrobial agent
Keywords:Antimicrobial activity, Antibacterial activity, Calendula officinalis, Echinacae purpurae
Microorganisms includes viruses, bacteria, protozoan, fungi and algae. The potential sources of microbes includes soil, water, atmosphere, plants, animals etc., of which, soil is the No. 1 concern for microbes. They mainly cause infections in respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract, urogenital tract, skin etc. The repeated intake of antibiotics against these infections leads to many adverse effects like antimicrobial resistance, which creates an urge for the society to depend on medicinal plants. Homeopathic medicine is considered as a complementary systems of medicine, which uses lower doses of plants, animals and inorganic substances to cure ailments and many of these homeopathic tinctures possess antimicrobial activity. This article reviews on antimicrobial property of Calendula officinalis and Echinacae purpurae mother tinctures and concludes that these two tinctures can be regarded as promising antimicrobial agents as they contain some phytochemical constituents responsible for the prevention of microbial growth
Anthony Huxley. Calendula officinalis https://enm.wikipedia.org cited 30 October, 2018
Bisset NG, Wichtl M. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals 2. Med pharm Scientific Publishers Stuttgart, Germany (2015).
Kemper KG. Calendula (Calendula officinalis) the longwood herbal task force and the centre for holistic pediatric education and research. Trop J Pharm Res, 5, 767-70 (1991).
Mills SY. The Essential Book of Herbal Medicine 5, Penguin Books Ltd, Harmonds worth, Middlesex (1991).
Mills SY. The Essential Book of Herbal Medicine. 2, Penguin Books Ltd. Harmonds worth, Middlesex (1991).
Muley B P, Khadabadi S S, Banarase N B. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae): A Review. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 8, 455-65 (2018).
Giles JT, Palat CT, Chien SH. Evaluation of Echinacea for treatment of the common cold. Pharmacotherapy, 20, 690-97 (2000).
Savalkar MB, Mulani YS, Gaikwad SS. To study antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research, 15, 91-6 (2019).
Satyarum SK, Deshmukh PV. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of flower extracts of aster and calendula sp. against skin pathogens. International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology, 20, 197-200 (2016).
Manayi A, Vazirian M, Saeidnia S. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 9, 63–72 (2015).
Fatima SS, Govekar SU, Satardekar KV. In vitro analysis of ethanolic extract of flowers of Calendula officinalis for antioxidant, antimicrobial and uv-H2O2 induced DNA damage protection activity. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7, 2378-83 (2018).
Chakrborthy GS. Antimicrobial Activity of The Leaf Extracts of Calendula officinalis. Journal of Herbal Medicine & Toxicology, 2, 65-66 (2008).
Chandurkar P, Murab T, Ahakey N. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous, acetone and methanol extracts of Calendula officinalis L. (Marigold) flower. International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience, 3, 386-88 (2015).
Afanasyeva PV, Kurkina AV, Kurkin VA. Determination of antimicrobial activity of extracts of Calendula officnalis flowers. Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 2, 60-70 (2016).
Hussain EE, Moore N. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 18, 173–6 (2012).
Tresch M, Mevisse M, Ayrle H. Medicinal plants as therapeutic options for topical treatment in canine dermatology -A systematic review. BMC Veterinary Research, 15,174-8 (2019).
Shankar SM, Bardvalli SG, Jyotirmayee R. Efficacy of Calendula officinalis extract (Marigold Flower) as an antimicrobial agent against oral microbes: an in vitro study in comparison with chlorhexidine digluconate, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 11, 5-10 (2017).
Lourdes R, Lourenço LM, Akisue G, Pereira CA, Junqueira JC, Jorge AOC et. al. Antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 19, 476-82 (2011).
Sawant A, Shinde M, Dhekale P. Combination extract of Calendula officinalis and Psidium gujava on antibacterial and antifungal activity. International Journal of Current Advanced Research, 7, 12787-90 (2018).
Shah PJ, Williams MT. Synergstic activity of Calendula officinalis petal extract with cefotaxim on ESBL Producing Escherichia coli. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 8, 419-25 (2018).
Filho JCCF, Gondim BLC, Cunha DA, Figueiredo CC, Valenca AMG. Physical properties and antibacterial activity of herbal tinctures of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) and Cashew Tree (Anacardium occidentale L.). Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clinica Integrada, 14, 49-53 (2014).
Pal N. Antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosasinensis and Calendula offcinalis flowers extract against various Pathogen. International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences, 2, 5-8 (2015).
Yalgi VS, Bhat KG. Compare and evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and Calendula officinalis against Streptococcusmutansas a root canal irrigating solution: An in Vivo Study. Journal of International Oral Health, 12, 74- 79 (2020).
Maidaa CCI, Magginiac V. Preliminary data on antibacterial activity of Echinacea purpurea associated bacterial communities against Burkholderia cepacia complex strains opportunistic pathogens of Cystic fibrosis patients. Microbiological Research, 196, 34–43 (2017).
Stanisavljevi I, Stojicevic S, Velickovic D. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea L.) extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound extraction. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 17, 478-83 (2009).
Sabouri Z, Barzegar M, Sahari MA, Badi HN. Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Echinacea purpurea extract and its effect on extension of cake shelf life. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 11, 35-42 (2012).
Safarabadi M, Ghaznavi‑Rad E, Pakniyat A. Comparing the effect of echinacea and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the microbial flora of intubated patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 83, 194-197 (2020).
Askari H, Ghaedi M, Naghiha R. In Vitro antibacterial and antifungal studies of Pulicaria undulate and Echinacea purpurea extracts in combination with nanowires (Ni:FeO(OH)) and nanoparticles (NiS). Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmceutical Products, 15, 643-58 (2020).
Rizzello CG, Coda R, Macias DS. Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the functional features of Echinacea species. Microbial Cell Factories, 12, 1-15 (2013).
Rady MR, Aboul-Enein AM, Ibrahim MM. Active compounds and biological activity of in vitro cultures of some Echinacea purpurea varieties. Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 42, 1-12 (2018).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 G. Jyotisree, R. Sruthi, C. R. Biju, Amita S. Menon
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
In submitting an article to Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR) I certify that:
- I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- I warrant, on behalf of myself and my co-authors, that:
- the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;
- I am/we are the sole author(s) of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to JOAPR are not in breach of any other obligation;
- the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libellous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy;
- I/we have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To my/our - and currently accepted scientific - knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.
- I, and all co-authors, agree that the article, if editorially accepted for publication, shall be licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
- I, and all co-authors, agree that, if the article is editorially accepted for publication in Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR) data included in the article shall be made available under the Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver, unless otherwise stated. For the avoidance of doubt it is stated that sections 1, 2, and 3 of this license agreement shall apply and prevail.