Main Article Content
Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. The motor system is eventually damaged which affects the voluntary movements in a patient. It leads to the death of vital nerve cells in the brain. Women have lesser prevalence due to the hormone called Estrogen which has been playing a significant role in human body. Most of the treatments focus on the balance of Dopamine in the brain which is done with the help of levodopa but the side effects seen in the patients were mild nausea, loss of appetite, heart burn, diarrhea, and many more. The cause of the disease is still unknown but its occurrence is mainly because of genetic and environmental factors. This review focuses on the combination therapy of levodopa and Carbidopa to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The copyright of the published manuscript lies with the author. In submitting an article to Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR) I certify that:
- I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- I warrant, on behalf of myself and my co-authors, that:
- the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;
- I am/we are the sole author(s) of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to JOAPR are not in breach of any other obligation;
- the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libellous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy;
- I/we have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To my/our - and currently accepted scientific - knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.
- I, and all co-authors, agree that the article, if editorially accepted for publication, shall be licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
- I, and all co-authors, agree that, if the article is editorially accepted for publication in Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR) data included in the article shall be made available under the Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver, unless otherwise stated. For the avoidance of doubt it is stated that sections 1, 2, and 3 of this license agreement shall apply and prevail.
- I, and all co-authors are permitted and encouraged to post my/our work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work
 Lazzara C, Riley R, Rane A et al. The combination of lithium and l-Dopa/Carbidopa reduces MPTP-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) via calpain-1 inhibition in a mouse model: Relevance for Parkinson׳s disease therapy. Brain Research 2015;1622:127-136.
 Davie C. A review of Parkinson's disease. British Medical Bulletin 2008;86:109-127
 DeMaagd G, Phillip A. Parkinson’s Disease and Its Management Part 1: Disease Entity, Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, and Diagnosis. Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2015;40:504-532
 Esterson Y, Carey M, Boucai L et al. Central Regulation of Glucose Production May Be Impaired in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes 2016;65:2569-2579.
 Why is Carbidopa Added to Levodopa (i.e., L-Dopa; Sinemet; Sinemet CR) for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease?. Ebmconsult.com. 2017.https://www.ebmconsult.com/articles/carbidopa-levodopa-parkinson-disease (accessed 7 Nov 2017).
 Machado A, Zaidan H, Paixão A et al. Feature visualization and classification for the discrimination between individuals with Parkinson’s disease under levodopa and DBS treatments. BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2016;15
 Robertson D, Wood N, Everest H et al. The effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of levodopa administered alone and in the presence of carbidopa. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology1989;28:61-69.
 Vinall M, Dubow J. Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel Shows Promise in Advanced Parkinson Disease. MD Conference Express 2015;15:11-11
 Aquilonius S, Nyholm D. Development of new levodopa treatment strategies in Parkinson’s disease—from bedside to bench to bedside. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 2017;122:71-77.