Development and evaluation of time controlled release tablet of ketoprofen for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Main Article Content

P H Sharma J. G. Avari


The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate time controlled release tablet of Ketoprofen intended for rheumatoid arthritis. The cardinal sign of rheumatoid arthritis are stiffness, swelling and pain of one or more joints of the body characteristically most severe in the morning. Rheumatoid arthritis shows a significant circadian variation in its symptoms. Time controlled release tablet delivers the drug at definite time or in controlled rate. It consist of core tablet coated with two layers, the inner swelling layer and outer rupturable. Before compression of core tablet, drug- excipients compatibility study and precompression parameters were investigated. Core tablet was prepared by direct compression method. After evaluating core tablet for different evaluation parameter of tablet are coated with crosscarmellose sodium as inner swelling layer with different coating level. The prepared tablet again evaluated and coated with rupturable layer of ethylcellulose. The free film of ethylcellulose was evaluated for various parameters. The effect of microcrystalline cellulose and coating level of rupturable layer and swellable layer on lag time were investigated. The results shows as the amount of microcrystalline cellulose increase in core tablet the lag time decreases. The lag time increases with increase in coating level of swelling layer and rupturable layer. The water uptake study shows that higher ethylcellulose levels retards the water uptake and prolongs the lag time.

Article Details

How to Cite
SHARMA, P H; AVARI, J. G.. Development and evaluation of time controlled release tablet of ketoprofen for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 3, p. 8-20, july 2017. ISSN 2348-0335. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 oct. 2017. doi:


[1] Parashar B, Thakur VS, Thakur A, Chauhan A, Prashar D. International journal of institutional pharmacy and lifesciences. 2, 291–311 (2012).
[2] Jha N, Bapat S. Chronobiology and chronotherapeutics. Kathmandu Univ. Med. J., 2 no. 4, 384–8 (2004).
[3] M. Packia Lincy, K. Paulpriya VM. Pharma science monitor. Pharma Sci. Monit., 4, 3947–63 (2013).
[5] Latha K, Uhumwangho MU, Sunil SA, Srikanth M V., Ramana Murthy K V. Development of an optimised losartan potassium press-coated tablets for chronotherapeutic drug delivery. Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 10, 551–8 (2011).
[6] El-maradny HA. Modulation of a Pulsatile Release Drug Delivery System Using Different Swellable / Rupturable Materials. 7544, 539–46 (2007).
[7] Kulkarni RV, Mutalik S, Hiremath D. Effect of plasticizer on the permeability and mechanical properties of eudragit films for transdermal application. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 2002, 64: 28-31.
[8]. Bonina, F.P., Carellii, V., Cols, G.D., Montenegro, L. and Nannipieri, E. (1993). Vehicle effects on in vitro skin permeation of and stratum corneum affinity for model drugs caffeine and testosterone. Int. J. Pharm, 100: 41-47.
[9] Mundada AS, Avari JG. Permeability studies of Damar Batu free films for transdermal application. Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng. Q., 15, 83–8 (2009).
[10] Lachman, L. and Drubulis, A., Factors influencing the properties of films used for tablet coating: I. J. Pharm. Sci., 53 (1964) 639-643.
[11] ASTM Standards, D882-95a, American Society for Testing and Materials, West
Conshohocken, PA, (1995)
[12] BK Garg1* P. Kothiyal1 GG. Formulation and Evaluation of Pulsatile Drug Delivery System of Rosuvastatin Calcium Using Different Swelling Polymers\n. Pharma Innov., Vol. 1, 61–7 (2012).
[13] Reddy GS, Nayak UY, Deshpande PB, Mutalik S. Gastroretentive Pulsatile Release Tablets of Lercanidipine HCl: Development, Statistical Optimization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation. Sci. World J., 2014, 1–13 (2014).
[14] Sungthangjeen S, Puttipipatkhachorn S, Pearatakul O, Dashevsky A, Bodmeier R. Development of pulsatile release tablets with swelling and rupturable layers. J Control Release. 2004;95:147–59.
[15] Qureshi J, Amir M, Ahuja A, Baboota S, Ali J. Chronomodulated Drug Delivery System
of Salbutamol Sulphate for the Treatment of Nocturnal Asthma. Indian Journal of
Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2008;70(3):351-356.
[16 ] Efentakis M, Koligliati S, Vlachou M. Design and evaluation of a dry coated drug
delivery system with an impermeable cup, swellable top layer and pulsatile release Int J
Pharm. 2006 Mar 27;311(1-2):147-56
[17] Vittal, G Vijayaranga et al. “Formulation and Characterization of Ketoprofen Liquisolid Compacts by Box-Behnken Design.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 2.3 (2012): 150– 156.
[18] Tuan Anh N, T Chi N, Tran TK, Tuyen Dao TP, Nhan Le NT, Mau Chien D, To Hoai N. Preparation and characterization of ketoprofen loaded eudragit RS polymeric nanoparticles for controlled release. Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 3, 45015 (2012).
[19] Kannan K, Ramya Krishna, Manikandan M et al. (2012). Development and Evaluation of Valsartan Film Coated Tablets. J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. 4(6): 1866 – 1871
[20] Rajalakshmi G, Vamsi CH, Balachandar R et al. (2011). Formulation and evaluation of diclofenac potassium effervescent tablets. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research 2(4): 237-243.
[21] Lin SY1, Lin KH, Li MJ. Influence of excipients, drugs, and osmotic agent in the inner core on the time-controlled disintegration of compression-coated ethylcellulose tabletsJ Pharm Sci. 2002 Sep;91(9):2040-6.
[22]Sunil SA, Rao NS, Srikanth MV, Uhumwangho MU, Kumar KSP, Murthy KVR. Development and evaluation of a chronotherapeutic drug delivery system of torsemide. Brazilian J. Pharm. Sci., 47, 593–600 (2011).
[23] Devi V. K., Saisivam, S., Maria, G. R., Deepti, P. U., 2003. Design and Evaluation of Matrix Diffusion Controlled Transdermal Patches of Verapamil Hydrochloride. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 29, 495–503.
[24] Loos Alfred C, Springer George S, Sanders Barbara A, Tung RW. Moisture
absorption of polyester-E glass composites. J Compos Mater. 1980;14:142–54
[25] Paul W.S. Heng, L.W. Chan, K.T. Ong Influence of storage conditions and type of plasticizers on ethylcellulose and acrylate films formed from aqueous dispersions J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci ( 6(3):334-344, 2003
[26] Bussemer T1, Dashevsky A, Bodmeier RA pulsatile drug delivery system based on rupturable coated hard gelatin capsules. J Control Release. 2003 Dec 12;93(3):331-9