Smart ungual biopenetrant from the roots of Beta vulgaris

Main Article Content

Satheesh Madhav Kirti Singh


The main objective of the current research was to isolate biopenetrant from Beta vulgaris and formulate bioadhesive layers loaded with terbinafine using this biopenetrant for delivery through nail. Form the preparation of films, Rosa centifolia and Vitis vinifera were used as a biopolymer. Beta vulgaris was used as biopenetrant. The formulations prepared using Beta vulgaris biopenetrant were compared with formulations containing papain as standard penetrant. Four bio-adhesive films of different ratios were prepared by film casting method using each penetrant. The formulated films were evaluated for various parameters like weight, thickness, nail adhesivity, content uniformity, surface pH, folding endurance, and in-vitro drug permeation. The formulation LB4 (containing 1:4 Beta vulgaris biopenetrant) was found to be the best formulation having R2 value 0.990 with zero order as best fit model. The results obtained conclude that biopenetrants can be used as natural penetration enhancers.

Article Details

How to Cite
MADHAV, Satheesh; SINGH, Kirti. Smart ungual biopenetrant from the roots of Beta vulgaris. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 2, p. 21-26, apr. 2017. ISSN 2348-0335. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 aug. 2017.
Transungual drug delivery; biopolymer; biopenetrants; terbinafine


[1] Hao J, Smith KA, Li SK. Chemical method to enhance transungual transport and iontophoresis efficiency. Int. J. Pharm., 357, 61–9 (2008)
[2] Murdan S. Drug delivery to the nail following topical application. 236, 1–26 (2002).
[3] Nikam VK, Kotade KB, Gaware VM, Dolas RT, Chincholi P, Chincholi P. Newsletter Transungual drug delivery system : a review, 139, 126–39 (2011).
[4] Welsh O, Vera-cabrera L, Welsh E. Onychomycosis. 151–9 (2010).
[5] Elkeeb R, AliKhan A, Elkeeb L, Hui X, Maibach HI. Transungual drug delivery: Current status. Int. J. Pharm., 384, 1–8 (2010).
[6] Jones KL. Therapeutic Review: Alfaxalone. J. Exot. Pet Med., 21, 347–53 (2012).
[7] Kumar Y. Beetroot: A Super Food. Intern. J. Eng. Stud. Tech. Approach, 1, 1–7 (2015).
[8] Satheesh Madhav N V., Tangri P. Formulation and evaluation of zidovudine bio-micro dwarfs using a novel bio-muco resident from Artocarpus heterophyllus. Int. J. PharmTech Res., 3, 169–74 (2011).
[9] Anisree GS, Ramasamy C, John Wesley I, Koshy BM. Formulation of transdermal drug delivery system of metoprolol tartrate and its evaluation. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 4, 1939–42 (2012).
[10] Nanda S, Saroha K, Yadav B, Sharma B. Formulation and Characterization of Transdermal Patch of Amlodipine Besylate. 1, (2012).
[11] Murthy TEGK, Kishore VS. Effect of casting solvent on permeability of antihypertensive drugs through ethyl cellulose films. J. Sci. Ind. Res. (India)., 67, 147–50 (2008).
[12] Bottenberg P, Cleymaet R, De Muynck C, Remon JP, Coomans D, Michotte Y, Slop D. Development and Testing of Bioadhesive, Fluoride???containing Slow???release Tablets for Oral Use. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 43, 457–64 (1991).
[13] Ema. European Medicines Agency. ICH-Stability Test. new Drug Subst. Prod., 1–20 (2003).